The ecological green method of the hottest design

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Ecological (green) method of design

I. Introduction

here are some measurement standards of ecological design. However, designers should be reminded that ecological design is not only to meet these standards, but also to ensure a design as comprehensive as possible: it will have the minimum systematic impact (or the maximum beneficial impact) on the non renewable energy in the ecosystem and biosphere

ecological design involves the overall consideration of design and the careful use of energy and materials in the designed system. Through design, efforts should be made to reduce the impact of such use on the natural environment (and its combination with the natural environment). It involves the cycle from raw materials to waste in the designed system

we can build these elements that need to be considered in a framework that includes the interaction between the construction environment and the ecological environment. These interactions are similar to the concept of an open system. Based on the above elements, these interactions can be summarized into several basic types:

external interdependence of the designed system (external or environmental relationship of the system)

internal interdependence of the designed system (internal relationship of the system)

internal and external exchange of energy and matter (input to the system)

in a designed ecological research approach, we must consider all these factors and their interrelationships at the same time

II. Key measurement standard

1. Evaluate the demand for buildings: put users before hardware; Assess the level of internal environmental system assurance. Before investing in the design, evaluate the design points, project basis and user requirements from the perspective of ecological sensitivity

2. Evaluation of building land: lot planning (such as building location, concave convex contour, roads and paved areas, etc.) should be based on ecological land use. The building should be arranged in the section, which will have the least damage and impact on the local ecosystem. Improve the ecological value of the area by combining the animal and plant populations with local characteristics

evaluate the impact of wind on the local area: reduce the impact of wind on pedestrians and surrounding buildings

check the shading of other buildings; Determine the location of the building in the section, and avoid the existing obstruction to nearby buildings and sections. The shape of the building can be based on the sunshine envelope of the section, so as to avoid potential shadow occlusion of the nearby section. This affects the potential application of solar energy in adjacent areas and the wintering situation in temperate climate areas

test outdoor noise: through design, ensure that the outdoor noise intensity of the nearest residential building exposed is not less than 5 dB lower than the background noise level at any time from 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. in a day, and does not exceed the night risk control. In fact, it is a kind of background noise level at any time from 11:00 a.m. to 7:00 a.m. in an investment return room

3. Evaluate the properties of the building: add the complete regeneration cycle and regeneration possibility factors of the materials, and consider the role of the energy value embodied in the materials used in the construction and maintenance process. Consider the role of local materials in the main building components

evaluate the impact of buildings on the environment: test the environmental impact caused by the flow of materials and energy in building products

assess natural resource consumption and recycled materials: specifically arrange materials to consider natural resource depletion (e.g. wood/wood products from sustainable resources). Reuse of damaged materials under appropriate conditions

evaluate hazardous materials: avoid specific use of known hazardous materials (such as wood preservatives) in any possible situation where economic alternatives cannot be obtained

evaluate the impact of building construction: the construction operation should not cause damage to the ecosystem in and around the lot. The long-term success of a "sustainable" design also requires special attention to the control of construction, commissioning and building use

the environmental operations that require the contractor to write into the contract include: developing and implementing an environmental plan for the project; Minimize waste; Make full use of energy and other resources to prevent pollution; Use recycled or renewable materials or components as much as possible; Minimize traffic demand (including transporting in/out materials); Reasonable treatment of inevitable waste, including full service, gradually constitutes a collaborative and interdependent community of interests from the relevant laws. Clean up the site at the end of the project

evaluate external landscape design: micro climate improvement can be achieved through lot planning and landscape design. Four main factors affect human comfort: solar radiation, temperature, air flow, temperature or precipitation. When the comprehensive effect of these elements does not produce uncomfortable pressure on people, the conditions reach the comfort range of people. It can ensure that the spring is placed in different places of the pressure plate, and the experimental force is basically 1. The closer the outdoor climate is to this range, the less energy is required to create the indoor climate. Landscape forms can play a beneficial role in building energy consumption, thus reducing costs and improving microclimate. Landscape design should aim to improve the microclimate of the space around the building and provide a more comfortable environment for people who use this space. Provide a combination of architecture and landscape design to enrich the characteristics of the area. The combination of the designed system and landscape plants leads to the development and flexibility of the local ecosystem. Use vertical landscape and plants to reduce the surrounding temperature

4. Evaluate the impact of building operation: maximize the channels of passive energy system to use surrounding energy: building shape, building orientation, facade design, daylight control device, building appearance color, vertical landscape, natural ventilation, and design simple control measures that can be understood and controlled by all users

maximize the use of non renewable resources (such as photovoltaic energy)

reduce carbon dioxide generated due to energy consumption; Control the generation of carbon dioxide less than 50 kg/year · m2

control acid rain: the nitrogen oxide emission of the boiler should be less than 200 mg/kWh

avoid ozone depletion caused by CFCs, HCFCs and halogens: use halogen-free ozone depletion free refrigeration equipment; The structure and enclosure are isolated by ozone free

through design, realize the storage of recyclable materials: under appropriate conditions, provide sufficient space for the isolation and storage of waste for reuse and recyclable collections

maximize the use of passive systems with natural ventilation. Passive smoking and humidity: the majority of the space is designed for natural ventilation, and smoking is prohibited indoors; Avoid plants that need moisture; Carefully design the temperature system in unnaturally ventilated places; Indoor air quality should be within C25 liters/person (such as complete fresh air without re circulation); Use natural ventilation

maximize the use of passive systems of natural and artificial lighting: provide high-quality visual comfort in the office through lighting. Try to expand the working area using sunlight to at least 80% of the total area used for office, and meet the second part of the British daylight lighting standard bs8206. All lamps with output fluctuations (such as fluorescent lamps) should be equipped with high-frequency ballasts; Use lamp grille or special glass, etc

check thermal comfort and overheating: try to reduce the risk of overheating and discomfort due to passive design factors to supplement the planned natural ventilation and night cooling measures. Satisfactory operation is achieved through consistent calculation of CIBSE

control indoor noise: achieve a comfortable acoustic environment in offices and meeting rooms. Private offices and small meeting rooms - 40 db; Large conference room - 45 dB. The sound isolation and noise reduction of the building are consistent with the British standard bs8233:1987

check the energy consumption in the life cycle (such as the effectiveness of energy conversion) and minimize the energy consumption in operation, which itself accounts for the largest share of building energy use

evaluate water pollution: reduce water loss in the section to manage pollution at the source from the aspect of surface water loss. Promote water absorption and return to groundwater

evaluate the transportation energy: try to reduce the parking of cars in the section; Formulate policies to encourage public transport, and do not advocate the use of cars. Evaluate indoor air quality: particulate filtration

evaluate air quality/carbon dioxide; Decoration/maintenance; Natural ventilation is provided through openable windows to maintain the air exchange rate recommended by CIBSE. Avoid closed air circulation; Use indoor plants to absorb VOCs

design internal water conservation: the design goal is to reduce the demand for drinking water from the main pipe. Water circulation plan; Rainwater utilization; Wastewater treatment plan: sewage sediment utilization; Water efficiency management measures; Water leakage; Irrigation systems in landscape areas should be utilized; Rainwater should be collected and recycled (e.g. for toilet flushing)

reduce or restore waste materials and heat: restore waste materials and heat generated by building operations through design; Consider storing and transporting materials for recycling

check the internal equipment: the basic building provides conference rooms and business centers that can be relocated. Avoid waste through design; Furniture layout allows flexible personnel grouping arrangement with minimal changes. Check the use of hazardous materials

5. After the end of the service life of the building, an increase of 39.7% over the same period last year of $15.887 million, the repair of all materials and equipment: fully consider the possibility of reuse and repair

III. conclusion

the above is a simple browsing of ecological design by using the existing prevailing standards. Designers should be reminded that this list is not completely comprehensive, and the applicable standards change with the development of ecological design technology and theory


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